[7], Curtis concentrated his army around the Confederate positions near Elkhorn Tavern during the night; at dawn he started an artillery bombardment which lasted two hours. The Confederates settled into winter quarters in the northern Boston Mountains, where Price immediately started feuding with McCulloch again. Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, Second Corinth Confederate order of battle, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Army_of_the_West_(1862)&oldid=998529132, Military units and formations established in 1862, Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 20:09. 50, 56–57, 63–65, 70, 74–115, 133. Please consider making a gift today to help raise the $170,000 we need to preserve this piece of American history forever. O n July 6, 1864, a large contingent of Union soldiers, many hefting picks and shovels, marched to a point just west of Jerusalem Plank Road, a mile south of the Confederate earthworks protecting Petersburg, Virginia. On the first day, Price's troops drove the Union troops from their lines north of Corinth into their second line of fortifications; on the second, his divisions overran several parts of the Union line and briefly entered into Corinth but had to fall back due to lack of support. Grant and Rosecrans immediately formed a plan of trapping Price, with Grant moving in from the northwest to hold Price's attention, while Rosecrans attacked from the south and southwest to cut off Price's lines of retreat. A quick review of the course of Union victory in the West demonstrates all these factors at work.The first major Union victory came with the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson by joint Union Army and Navy forces under the command of Grant and Flag Officer Andrew H. Foote in February 1862. Cozzens, pp. The retreat continued westward, with Lovell's division serving as a rearguard against Rosecrans and Price's divisions in front. The Union Army was a new formation comprising mostly state units, together with units from the regular U.S. Army. These armies were comprised of U.S. regulars (professional soldiers of the regular United States Army (the Federal army), and the volunteer units supplied by the Northern and Western states and territories. Divisions of the American Battlefield Trust: The American Battlefield Trust is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. It campaigned primarily in West Virginia, Southwest Virginia and in the Shenandoah Valley. [9], Following the transfer of the Army of the West to Corinth, part of the army was incorporated into the Army of Mississippi. 55 terms. [8], Once the army arrived at Van Buren, Van Dorn reorganized it into a single division under Price, with four infantry brigades, two cavalry brigades, and an artillery brigade. After the Battle of Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River, victorious Gen. Ulysses S. Grant came to be known as “Unconditional Surrender” Grant for his rejection of any terms other than unconditional surrender of the fort. was forced into a defensive position. Van Dorn was appointed commander of the District of the Mississippi, centered around Vicksburg; Price was given the District of the Tennessee, covering northwestern Mississippi and northeastern Alabama, with the Army of the West as his field army. The Union Army of the West, Inc. is an umbrella organization for multiple re-enacting organizations. Donations to the Trust are tax deductible to the full extent allowable under the law. This enabled Price to concentrate on Rosecrans, resulting in the Battle of Iuka; the Confederates overpowered the initial Union line and held it against Union counterattacks. 2, General Braxton Bragg, divided Mississippi into several commands to defend the state in his absence. Grant's Union armies in the West and East that battled Confederate armies, inflicted more casualties, a total of 190,760 Confederate versus 153,643 Union, a difference of 37,118. He also ordered Brigadier General Albert Pike to bring his brigade from the Indian Territory to Arkansas but only two regiments (the 1st and 2nd Cherokee Mounted Rifles) reached Van Dorn's army before the campaign started. Hulbut then crossed several regiments to the east bank, which suffered 570 casualties, mostly due to sharpshooters and artillery fire. At this time, McCulloch received permission to head around the southern shoulder of Big Mountain and meet up with Price near Elkhorn Tavern, since this would shorten the distance he would travel. (Lovell's division remained separate from Price's corps and reported directly to Van Dorn.) The U.S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, two of cavalry, two of dragoons, and one of mounted infantr… The Army of the West was redesignated Price's Corps, which with Mansfield Lovell's division from the District of the Mississippi, formed Van Dorn's Army of West Tennessee. Help Save 110 Acres at Three Civil War Battlefields, Preserve 108 Acres of the Most Important Unprotected Battlefield Land, Kentuckians: Support Battlefield Preservation Legislation, Virginians: Support Battlefield Preservation Legislation. These member organizations are individual groups with their own members and commanders, but also members of the UAW. Both Price and McCulloch feuded with each other concerning the proper Confederate strategy in the Trans–Mississippi area, and cooperated only once, during the Wilson'… We have been in existence since 1995. Union Army of the West, Whittier. With fighting in the Valley … The two columns reached Iuka on September 19 but due to poor communications and misunderstanding, Grant failed to attack as planned. Initially, Van Dorn refused to unite his force with Price's, instead concentrating on recapturing Baton Rouge, Louisiana; when that attack failed, Van Dorn reconsidered Price's proposal of invading the Union held territory. Neither Van Dorn nor Price remained behind to supervise the retreat, so the units left the field chaotically, with the artillery batteries leaving as they ran out of ammunition and the infantry and cavalry regiments following. At one point, Union soldiers forced 8,000 Navajo people to travel hundreds of miles over eighteen days. Why the Union was successful in the West during the Civil War? About 25% of the white men who served in the Union Army were foreign-born. [14], For the U.S. army during the Mexican-American War, see. 343–344. Known in official reports as Redoubt H, it was a key part of the Union’s plan to push the Confederate army to the breaking point. It consisted of the small United States Army (the regular army), augmented by massive numbers of units supplied by the Northern states, composed of volunteers as well as draftees. Turning Points. Hebert reported himself sick on the morning of the second day and was replaced by Brigadier General Martin E. Green; in addition, several field officers were killed or wounded during the battle. West Virginia did not organize any confederate regiments. 13 terms. As part of the preparations for the Perryville campaign, the new commander of Department No. Both Price and McCulloch feuded with each other concerning the proper Confederate strategy in the Trans–Mississippi area, and cooperated only once, during the Wilson's Creek campaign in August 1861. Union Army of the West, Whittier. Due to having no ammunition reserves nearby, the Confederates soon ran very low on artillery shells and couldn't resupply for at least five or six hours. It was made up of only four brigades and operated in Missouri. Federal Identification Number (EIN): 54-1426643. The Union army launched a series of campaigns in the West against tribes such as the Kiowas, Comanches, and Navajo. This became known as the Navajo's Long Walk. 1st Brigade (884) Major Samuel D. Sturgis Army of the West, 1861 Department of Kansas , November 9, 1861–65 Department of New Mexico , to July 3, 1861, (merged into Western Department); Restored November 9, 1861 - June 27, 1865 Price also started the process of enlisting his men from the Missouri State Guard into the Confederate volunteer army but the process was slow and only one brigade was organized onto complete regiments by March; another brigade was composed only of battalions and a third of partial organized battalions and companies. Please go into the website to see our history, schedule for the year, and our list of members. Approximately 9,000 West Virginians chose to fight for the Confederate States of America and generally joined the confederate regiments o… The Confederates were able to drive back the Union line and capture a cannon but couldn't rout Carr's division; one of Price's brigade commanders was killed and Price himself was wounded twice but not seriously enough to leave the field. Cozzens, pp. 2 and Union Army of West Tennessee: February 11 – 16, 1862 Battle of Island Number Ten: Confederate Department No. 2 items + 0.06 Upon learning of Grant's approach, Price decided to retreat to avoid being surrounded; total Confederate casualties were 652, with Little killed and succeeded by Brigadier General Louis Hebert. hedgie_lim. [6] During the night, the remains of McCulloch's division arrived at Elkhorn Tavern but no supplies came, since the supply train was located several miles away at the initial Confederate positions and Van Dorn failed to order it to follow the army; as a result, the Confederates were low on ammunition. 136–140, 175–193, 203–213, 237–268, 271, 306. [45] Dates of rank [ edit ] The U.S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, two of cavalry, two of dragoons, and one of mounted infantr… [4] Pike was able to rally a portion of the division and lead it back to the Bentonville Detour, where it marched around the northern end of Big Mountain and to Elkhorn Tavern. For the Union, West Virginia mustered between 22,000 and 25,000 menin 20 infantry units, 7 cavalry units, 1 artillery unit and 3 other types of units. Led by newly promoted Brigadier General Nathaniel Lyon, the Federal forces were a combination of regular United States Army and volunteers from Missouri, Kansas and Iowa. Van Dorn then informed Price of his plans to capture Corinth: first the Confederates would march to Pocahontas, northwest of Corinth, in order to confuse the Union high command, then turn around and attack Corinth from the north and northwest. However, a portion of the Union army, commanded by Brigadier General Franz Sigel intercepted McCulloch's men near the southwest corner of Big Mountain. Once a temporary bridge was built across the Hatchie, the Confederate army retreated to Holly Springs. While an attack by Pike's brigade and Brigadier General James McIntosh's cavalry brigade drove back the Union forces from their initial positions, McCulloch was killed while scouting the second Union line, McIntosh was killed while leading a regiment into position, and Union reinforcements routed McCulloch's infantry brigade and captured its leader, Colonel Louis Hebert. The Army of West Virginia served in the Union Army during the American Civil War and was the primary field army of the Department of West Virginia. Price was reassigned to the Trans-Mississippi Department in February 1863 but the Missouri regiments were not transferred with him as he had requested. Donations to the Trust are tax deductible to the full extent allowable under the law. [12], Van Dorn ordered a retreat first towards Pocahontas, where he proposed for the Confederate army to attack Corinth again from the south; both Price and Maury talked him out of it. The Union Army forcibly removed thousands of Navajo people throughout the West and interned them at Bosque Redondo, guarded by Union soldiers at Fort Sumner… Defend your homeland, fight for what … [2], To solve the problem of having two feuding commanders in Arkansas, Confederate President Jefferson Davis appointed Major General Earl Van Dorn to command the District of the Trans–Mississippi, which covered Missouri, Arkansas, the Indian Territory, and northern Louisiana; the district was part of the Confederate Department No. The primary goal of the Union Army in the west was to control the Mississippi River. Shea & Hess, p. 87; Josephy, pp. The Union Army was made up of the permanent regular army of the United States, but further fortified, augmented, and strengthened by the many temporary units of dedicated volunteers as well as including those who were drafted in to service as conscripts.To this end, the Union Army fought and ultimately triumphed over the efforts of the Confederate States Army in the American Civil War. The army may have contained more conspicuous regiments, but it contained no more faithful defenders of the nation’s cause than the Sixth West Virginia Volunteer Infantry. It saw action in the Battle of Pea Ridge, Battle of Corinth, and Battle of Iuka and consisted of about 20,000 personnel. 2, commanded by General Albert Johnston. When the American Civil War began in April 1861, there were only 16,000 men in the U.S. Army, and of these many Southern officers resigned and joined the Confederate States Army. During 1861, Confederate forces in Missouri and Arkansas were divided into two independent commands: Major General Sterling Price's pro–Confederate Missouri State Guard, based in southwestern Missouri, and Major General Benjamin McCulloch's Confederate volunteers, based in northwestern Arkansas and the Indian Territory. The Regiment is part of the Cavalry Brigade of the Union Army of the West , Inc. (see the link to the UAOW). There was a delay as the Confederates had to construct a bridge over the Little Sugar Creek; by morning Price's division arrived at the Telegraph Road north of Curtis's fortifications, with McCulloch behind him and a rocky ridge called Big Mountain between the Confederates and the Union army. Price was ordered to hold the Mobile and Ohio Railroad and prevent the Union forces in western Tennessee, commanded by U. S. Grant and William S. Rosecrans, from reinforcing the Union army in Kentucky, with Van Dorn to cooperate with Price. 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